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The proposed methods are tested using hyperspectral data with known ground truth, such that the efficacy can be quantitatively measured in terms of target. Studies have shown that teachers' beliefs influence their assessment practices. However, the overarching framework of those beliefs in relation to teachers' classroom assessment confidence has been largely unexamined.

This research explored teachers' conceptions of assessment and their confidence regarding the implementation of sound classroom…. The undergraduate preparation of dentists: Confidence levels of final year dental students at the School of Dentistry in Cardiff. Objective To investigate the self-reported confidence and preparedness of final year undergraduate students in undertaking a range of clinical procedures.

Methods A questionnaire was distributed to final year dental students at Cardiff University, six months prior to graduation. Conclusions As expected complex procedures that were least practised scored the lowest in overall mean confidence. Gender differences were noted in self-reported confidence for carrying out treatment unsupervised and feeling unprepared for clinical work.

Accomplished throwers conserve angular momentum when distal joints of the throwing arm reach peak velocity at a later time than their proximal neighbors. The result is an increase in velocity of the most distal segment--the hand. Past research indicates that skill level varies by the number of joints experiencing distal timing lag time to peak…. This option would have the lowest net cost and would be the most effective in joint integration and development of an The United States A similar course of the.

This study examined the degree to which these skills and response to joint attention RJA; e. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a workbook program on percieved stress levels , maternal role confidence and breastfeeding practices of mothers of premature infants.

This study employed a quasi-experimental non-equivalent pre-and-post test to compare the two groups. Data was collected from 32 subjects from March In the sample, fifteen mothers were in the experimental group and seventeen were in the control group. A workbook program was provided twice during a period from two-three days after the baby's admission to one week after the first intervention. The instruments used were the PSS and self confidence scale.

Data was analyzed by means of frequency, SD, chi 2 -test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. It is concluded that a program using a workbook has a positive effect on decreasing the perceived stress level and increasing breastfeeding practice.

Factors determining the level and changes in intra-articular pressure in the knee joint of the dog. Intra-articular pressure levels were determined for joint positions throughout the normal physiological range of movement of dogs' knee joints. Change in joint position resulted in change in intra-articular pressure.

It was demonstrated that intra-articular pressure is highest with the joint in the fully flexed position. Minimum pressure was recorded at a position between 80 degrees and degrees. Minimum pressures were usually subatmospheric. The rate of change of joint position affected intra-articular pressure. The relationship of intra-articular pressure and joint position before and after full flexion demonstrated a hysteresis effect; the pressures were lower than for the same joint position before flexion.

Maintenance of the joint in the fully flexed position for increasing periods of time between repeated movement cycles resulted in a similar reduction, of constant magnitude, in pressure between joint positions before and after each period of flexion. However, there was also a progressive decrease in pressure for all joint angles over the total number of movement cycles. There is a contribution to intra-articular pressure of joint capsular compliance and fluid movement into and out of the joint both of which are time-dependent.

The recording of intra-articular pressure in conscious, upright dogs revealed similar pressure levels to those measured in anaesthetized supine dogs. The major determinants of intra-articular pressure in normal dog knee joints include joint size, synovial fluid volume, position of joint , peri-articular tissue and joint anatomy, membrane permeability, capsular compliance, and movement of fluid into and out of the joint.

Images Fig. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the aeromodeling Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills.

Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their language…. Four cities in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark have been engaged since in a joint study of the junior level of elementary school. More than 5, pupils are involved in the study. The Department of Education at the University of Turku joined the project in the autumn term of The purpose of the Swedish project, reported here, was to….

Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals. Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence , to include the true value of a population parameter…. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard.

We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing RNC-seq result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence.

In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein- level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases DDDs on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints.

Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae L2—S1 and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension.

In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion ROMs were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4—L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants.

During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4—L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level L3—L4 , in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2—L3 and L3—L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the.

Confidence and self- confidence are crucial practice elements in nursing education and practice. Nurse educators should have an understanding of the concept of confidence in order to assist in the accomplishment of nursing students and their learning of technical and nontechnical skills. With the aim of facilitating trusted care of patients in the healthcare setting, nursing professionals must exhibit confidence , and, as such, clarification and analysis of its meaning is necessary.

Walker and Avant's eight-step method of concept analysis was utilized for the framework of the analysis process with model, contrary, borderline, and related cases presented along with attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents identified. Understanding both the individualized development of confidence among prelicensure nursing students and the role of the nurse educator in the development of confident nursing practice, nurse educators can assist students in the development of confidence and competency.

Background Hyaluronic acid HA , lubricin, and phospholipid species PLs contribute independently or together to the boundary lubrication of articular joints that is provided by synovial fluid SF. HA and lubricin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PLs was quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Fatty acids FAs were analyzed by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry.

The MW distribution of HA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. We noted distinct alterations between cohorts in the relative distribution of PLs and the degree of FA saturation and chain lengths of FAs. Our study is the first delivering a comprehensive view about all joint lubricants during health and widespread joint diseases. Thus, we provide the framework to develop new optimal compounded lubricants to reduce joint destruction.

Feasibility of ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection considering sonoanatomic landmarks at two different levels in cadavers and patients. Sacroiliitis is often caused by rheumatic diseases, and besides other therapeutic options, treatment consists of intraarticular injection of corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of ultrasound US -guided sacroiliac joint SI joint injection at 2 different puncture levels in cadavers and patients when defined sonoanatomic landmarks were considered.

After defining sonoanatomic landmarks, US-guided needle insertion was performed in 10 human cadavers 20 SI joints at 2 different puncture sites. Upper level was defined at the level of the posterior sacral foramen 1 and lower level at the level of the posterior sacral foramen 2. In 10 patients with unilateral sacroiliitis, injection at the most feasible level was attempted. In all 4 cases in which needle insertion failed, intraarticular SI joint injection at the other level was successful.

US guidance of needle insertion into SI joints was feasible at both levels when defined sonoanatomic landmarks were used. If SI joint alterations do not allow for direct visualization of the dorsal joint space of the lower level , which is easier to access, the upper level might offer an appropriate alternative.

Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model. Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint.

Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation. Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise.

Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise.

Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. Ten participants had a command- level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates.

The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from prior studies.

This should be further explored and verified in additional studies. Brief report: High and low level initiations of joint attention, and response to joint attention: differential relationships with language and imitation. Findings indicate that IJA involves distinct skills, with high- level behaviors more closely related to social-communication skills.

Empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test at a fixed level of specificity. For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, it is often of interest to find the range of the sensitivity of the test at the cut-off that yields a desired specificity. In this article, we first define a profile empirical likelihood ratio for the sensitivity of a continuous-scale diagnostic test and show that its limiting distribution is a scaled chi-square distribution.

We then propose two new empirical likelihood-based confidence intervals for the sensitivity of the test at a fixed level of specificity by using the scaled chi-square distribution. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the finite sample performance of the newly proposed intervals with the existing intervals for the sensitivity in terms of coverage probability.

A real example is used to illustrate the application of the recommended methods. Joint sparsity based heterogeneous data- level fusion for target detection and estimation. Typical surveillance systems employ decision- or feature- level fusion approaches to integrate heterogeneous sensor data, which are sub-optimal and incur information loss. In this paper, we investigate data- level heterogeneous sensor fusion.

Since the sensors monitor the common targets of interest, whose states can be determined by only a few parameters, it is reasonable to assume that the measurement domain has a low intrinsic dimensionality. For heterogeneous sensor data, we develop a joint -sparse data- level fusion JSDLF approach based on the emerging joint sparse signal recovery techniques by discretizing the target state space.

This approach is applied to fuse signals from multiple distributed radio frequency RF signal sensors and a video camera for joint target detection and state estimation. The JSDLF approach is data-driven and requires minimum prior information, since there is no need to know the time-varying RF signal amplitudes, or the image intensity of the targets. Furthermore, for a multi-target case with J targets, the JSDLF approach only requires discretization in a single-target state space, instead of discretization in a J-target state space, as in the case of the generalized likelihood ratio test GLRT or the maximum likelihood estimator MLE.

Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that the proposed JSDLF approach achieves excellent performance with near real-time accurate target position and velocity estimates. Learning to make collective decisions: the impact of confidence escalation. Little is known about how people learn to take into account others' opinions in joint decisions. To address this question, we combined computational and empirical approaches. Human dyads made individual and joint visual perceptual decision and rated their confidence in those decisions data previously published.

We trained a reinforcement temporal difference learning agent to get the participants' confidence level and learn to arrive at a dyadic decision by finding the policy that either maximized the accuracy of the model decisions or maximally conformed to the empirical dyadic decisions. When confidences were shared visually without verbal interaction, RL agents successfully captured social learning. When participants exchanged confidences visually and interacted verbally, no collective benefit was achieved and the model failed to predict the dyadic behaviour.

Behaviourally, dyad members' confidence increased progressively and verbal interaction accelerated this escalation. The success of the model in drawing collective benefit from dyad members was inversely related to confidence escalation rate. The findings show an automated learning agent can, in principle, combine individual opinions and achieve collective benefit but the same agent cannot discount the escalation suggesting that one cognitive component of collective decision making in human may involve discounting of overconfidence arising from interactions.

Parent's confidence as a caregiver. The purpose of this study was to describe the parent's self-reported confidence as a caregiver. Participants were parents of infants with an anticipated discharge date within 5 days. Inclusion criteria were as follows: parent at least 18 years of age, infant's discharge destination is home with the parent, parent will have primary responsibility for the infant after discharge, and the infant's length of stay in the NICU was a minimum of 10 days.

Descriptive, survey research. Participants perceived themselves to be confident in all but 2 caregiving activities when caring for their infants in the NICU, but parents projected a change in their level of confidence in their ability to independently complete infant care activities at home. When comparing the self-reported level of confidence in the NICU and the projected level of confidence at home, the levels of confidence decreased for 5 items, increased for 8 items, and remained unchanged for 2 items.

All of the items with a decrease in score were the items with the lowest score when performed in the NICU. All of these low-scoring items are caregiving activities that are unique to the post-NICU status of the infant. Interestingly, the parent's projected level of confidence increased for the 8 items focused on handling and interacting with the infant.

The findings of this research provide evidence that nurses may need to rethink when parents become active participants in their infant's medical-based caregiving activities. Can combined use of low- level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints? Background This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low- level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis.

Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low- level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source.

Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results Among the painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery P level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement.

Joint inversion of geophysical data using petrophysical clustering and facies deformation wth the level set technique. Geological expertise and petrophysical relationships can be brought together to provide prior information while inverting multiple geophysical datasets. The merging of such information can result in more realistic solution in the distribution of the model parameters, reducing ipse facto the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem.

We consider two level of heterogeneities: facies, described by facies boundaries and heteroegenities inside each facies determined by a correlogram. In this presentation, we pose the geophysical inverse problem in terms of Gaussian random fields with mean functions controlled by petrophysical relationships and covariance functions controlled by a prior geological cross-section, including the definition of spatial boundaries for the geological facies. The petrophysical relationship problem is formulated as a regression problem upon each facies.

The inversion of the geophysical data is performed in a Bayesian framework. We demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy using a first synthetic case for which we perform a joint inversion of gravity and galvanometric resistivity data with the stations located at the ground surface.

The joint inversion is used to recover the density and resistivity distributions of the subsurface. In a second step, we consider the possibility that the facies boundaries are deformable and their shapes are inverted as well. We use the level set approach to perform such deformation preserving prior topological properties of the facies throughout the inversion. With the help of prior facies petrophysical relationships and topological characteristic of each facies, we make posterior inference about multiple geophysical tomograms based on their corresponding geophysical data misfits.

The method is applied to a second synthetic case showing that we can recover the heterogeneities inside the facies, the mean values for the petrophysical properties, and, to some extent, the facies boundaries using the 2D joint inversion of. Functional added value of microprocessor-controlled knee joints in daily life performance of Medicare Functional Classification Level -2 amputees.

To assess the effects of using a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint on the functional performance of activities of daily living in persons with an above-knee leg amputation. Randomised cross-over trial. Participants were measured in 3 conditions, i. Functional performance level was assessed using a test in which participants performed 17 simulated activities of daily living Assessment of Daily Activity Performance in Transfemoral amputees test.

Performance time was measured and self-perceived level of difficulty was scored on a visual analogue scale for each activity. High levels of within-group variability in functional performance obscured detection of any effects of using a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint. Data analysis after stratification of the participants into 3 subgroups, i.

MFCL-2 amputees constitute a heterogeneous patient group with large variation in functional performance levels. A substantial part of this group seems to benefit from using a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint when performing activities of daily living. The effect of an enrolled nursing registration pathway program on undergraduate nursing students' confidence level : A pre- and post-test study.

In the latter half of the 20th century, registered nurse education moved to university degree level. As a result, there has been a reduction in access for students to clinical experience. In numerous studies, nursing graduates have reported that they do not feel prepared for practice. The importance of maximising every learning opportunity during nursing school is paramount. At Edith Cowan University, a program was initiated that allows students to become enrolled nurses at the midway point of their degree to enable them to work and therefore gain experience in the clinical practice setting during their education.

This study investigated the effect of the program on the nursing students' perception of their clinical abilities and explored their ability to link theory to practice. The research design for this study was a quasi-experimental, prospective observational cohort study. The study included 39 second-year nursing students not enrolled in the program Group 1 , 45 second-year nursing students enrolled in the program Group 2 , and 28 third-year nursing students who completed the program and are working as enrolled nurses Group 3.

Participants were asked to complete a Five Dimension of Nursing Scale questionnaire. The quantitative analyses showed that students in Group 1 had statistically significant higher pre-questionnaire perceived abilities across all domains, except in two dimensions when compared to Group 2. The post-questionnaire analysis showed that Group 1 had statistically significant lower perceived abilities in four of the five dimensions compared to Group 2.

Group 1 also had significantly lower abilities in all dimensions compared to Group 3. Group 3 had a significantly higher perception of their clinical abilities compared to Group 2. This study highlights the value of meaningful employment for undergraduate nursing students by providing opportunities to increase confidence in clinical abilities. All rights.

Introduction: Temporomandibular joint disorders TMDs are the most common source of pain on the face. There are multiple etiologies, and several types of treatment have been reported. The use of non-invasive and reversible therapies in the treatment of such problems is recommended. All subjects were examined and data on pain and tenderness in the temporomandibular joint TMJ and masticatory muscles using the visual analogue scale and mouth-opening distance between incisal edges before feeling pain; mm were collected before baseline T1 , after each session T2-T5 and one month after the end of the sessions T6 , and analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical tests.

A P value Joint-level energetics differentiate isoinertial from speed-power resistance training-a Bayesian analysis. There is convincing evidence for the benefits of resistance training on vertical jump improvements, but little evidence to guide optimal training prescription.

The inability to detect small between modality effects may partially reflect the use of ANOVA statistics. This study represents the results of a sub-study from a larger project investigating the effects of two resistance training methods on load carriage running energetics.

Bayesian statistics were used to compare the effectiveness of isoinertial resistance against speed-power training to change countermovement jump CMJ and squat jump SJ height, and joint energetics. Primary outcome variables included jump height and joint power. The gain in CMJ height after isoinertial training was 1. In the CMJ, isoinertial training produced a larger increase in power absorption at the hip by a mean 0. Short-term isoinertial training improved CMJ height more than speed-power training.

The principle adaptive difference between training modalities was at the level of hip, knee and foot power absorption. Self- confidence and level of knowledge after cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in 14 to year-old schoolchildren: A randomised-interventional controlled study in secondary schools in Germany. Education of schoolchildren in cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR is a strategic goal for improvement of bystander CPR in society.

The primary objective was to analyse the impact of CPR training on the resuscitation knowledge and self- confidence of secondary schoolchildren. In addition, independent predictors of improved CPR knowledge and self- confidence were investigated. Randomised-interventional controlled study. Four secondary schools in Germany. Four hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren aged from 14 to 18 years were included into the study.

The intervention group received a min CPR training session, whereas controls had no intervention. Based on the evaluation of study questionnaires, the primary endpoint was to determine the development of resuscitation knowledge and self- confidence in initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation at survey time-points t0, t1 and t2. The long-term benefit in the level of knowledge and self- confidence were significantly higher in native compared with immigrant schoolchildren: OR, 1.

Older schoolchildren are more likely to have increased self- confidence with respect to initiating CPR. Schoolchildren with an. This study seeks to identify factors that influence the perceived complexity of providing nursing care to others who are dependent on alcohol and tobacco and the confidence of undergraduate student nurses to carry out this care.

The research project is designed to explore whether there is a difference between the perceived complexities of 57…. Raising Confident Kids. Joint projections of sea level and storm surge using a flood index. Capturing the joint influence of sea level rise SLR and tropical cyclones TCs on future coastal flood risk poses significant challenges.

To address these difficulties, Little et al. This technique illuminates the individual impacts of TCs and SLR and their correlation across different coupled climate models. By , changes in the flood index relative to are substantial and positively skewed: a 10thth percentile range of x higher for a high-end business-as-usual emissions scenario see figure.

This aggregated flood index: 1 is a means to consistently combine TC-driven storm surges and SLR; 2 provides a more robust description of historical surge-climate relationships than is available at any one location; and 3 allows the incorporation of a larger climate model ensemble - which is critical to uncertainty characterization.

It does not provide a local view of the complete spectrum of flood severity i. However, alternate techniques that provide localized return curves e. Lin et al. Here, we present the results of Little et al. We look to this interdisciplinary audience for feedback on the advantages and disadvantages of each tool for coastal planning and decision-making.

Lin, N. Emanuel, M. Oppenheimer, and E. Vanmarcke, Physically based assessment of hurricane surge threat under climate change. Low- level visual attention and its relation to joint attention in autism spectrum disorder.

Visual attention is integral to social interaction and is a critical building block for development in other domains e. Furthermore, atypical attention especially joint attention is one of the earliest markers of autism spectrum disorder ASD.

The findings indicate difficulty overriding incorrect attentional cues in ASD, particularly with non-social arrow cues relative to social face cues. The findings also show reduced competition in ASD from cues that remain on-screen. Furthermore, social attention, autism severity, and age were all predictors of competing cue processing. The results suggest that individuals with ASD may be biased towards speeded rather than accurate responding, and further, that reduced engagement with visual information may impede responses to visual attentional cues.

Once attention is engaged, individuals with ASD appear to interpret directional cues as meaningful. These findings from a controlled, experimental paradigm were mirrored in results from an ecologically valid measure of social attention. Attentional difficulties may be exacerbated during the complex and dynamic experience of actual social interaction. Implications for intervention are discussed.

Saharan dust inputs and high UVR levels jointly alter the metabolic balance of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. Cabrerizo, Marco J. The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation UVR levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems.

We show that the metabolic state of oligotrophic areas geographically varies and that the joint impact of UVR and dust inputs prompted a strong change towards autotrophic metabolism. We propose that this metabolic response could be accentuated with the global change as remote-sensing evidence shows increasing intensities, frequencies and number of dust events together with variations in the surface UVR fluxes on SW Mediterranean Sea.

Overall, these findings suggest that the enhancement of the net carbon budget under a combined UVR and dust inputs impact could contribute to boost the biological pump, reinforcing the role of the oligotrophic marine ecosystems as CO2 sinks. Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns.

However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events. We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74, men and women age years study period, to We measured alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries.

We performed analyses using the Aalen additive hazards model. During follow-up 1,, person-years , a total of alcohol-related events occurred. Cell segmentation is a critical step for quantification and monitoring of cell cycle progression, cell migration, and growth control to investigate cellular immune response, embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and drug effects on live cells in time-lapse microscopy images.

In this study, we propose a joint spatio-temporal diffusion and region-based level -set optimization approach for moving cell segmentation. Moving regions are initially detected in each set of three consecutive sequence images by numerically solving a system of coupled spatio-temporal partial differential equations.

In order to standardize intensities of each frame, we apply a histogram transformation approach to match the pixel intensities of each processed frame with an intensity distribution model learned from all frames of the sequence during the training stage. After the spatio-temporal diffusion stage is completed, we compute the edge map by nonparametric density estimation using Parzen kernels.

This process is followed by watershed-based segmentation and moving cell detection. We use this result as an initial level -set function to evolve the cell boundaries, refine the delineation, and optimize the final segmentation result. We applied this method to several datasets of fluorescence microscopy images with varying levels of difficulty with respect to cell density, resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio. We compared the results with those produced by Chan and Vese segmentation, a temporally linked level -set technique, and nonlinear diffusion-based segmentation.

We validated all segmentation techniques against reference masks provided by the international Cell Tracking Challenge consortium. An fMRI study of joint action—varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks. As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them.

Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels , from no each participant controlled one dimension exclusively to full each participant controlled half of each dimension cooperation.

Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex ACC , while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome.

Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing.

Building Confidence in Agricultural Leaders. This study sought to examine differences in the confidence level of Leadership Idaho Agriculture LIA graduates within six program areas in terms of their perceptions before and after participation in LIA. Of the individuals included in the population frame, individuals completed a then-post survey instrument for a total response rate of….

Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint : an in vitro study. To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament CCL had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia.

The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling.

Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling , axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau- leveled specimens.

After tibial plateau leveling , axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing.

Wafer- level Cu-Sn micro- joints with high mechanical strength and low Sn overflow. A thermodynamic model has been performed to further understand the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic alloys. Responsibility and confidence. Background: Despite the changing role of the pharmacist in patient-centred practice, pharmacists anecdotally reported little confidence in their clinical decision-making skills and do not feel responsible for their patients. Observational findings have suggested these trends within the profession, but there is a paucity of evidence to explain why.

Methods: Pharmacist interviews were conducted via written response, face-to-face or telephone. Seven questions were asked on the topic of responsibility and confidence as it applies to pharmacy practice and how pharmacists think these themes differ in medicine. Interview transcripts were analyzed and divided by common theme. Quotations to support these themes are presented. From these interviews, 6 themes were identified as barriers to confidence and responsibility: hierarchy of the medical system, role definitions, evolution of responsibility, ownership of decisions for confidence building, quality and consequences of mentorship and personality traits upon admission.

These findings have practical applicability for educational research, future curriculum changes, experiential learning structure and pharmacy practice. Due to bias and the limitations of this form of exploratory research and small sample size, evidence should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion: Pharmacists feel neither responsible nor confident for their clinical decisions due to social, educational, experiential and personal reasons.

Can Pharm J ; Neurophysiology of perceived confidence. In a partial report paradigm, subjects observe during a brief presentation a cluttered field and after some time - typically ranging from ms to a second - are asked to report a subset of the presented elements. A vast buffer of information is transiently available to be broadcasted which, if not retrieved in time, fades rapidly without reaching consciousness.

An interesting feature of this experiment is that objective performance and subjective confidence is decoupled. This converts this paradigm in an ideal vehicle to understand the brain dynamics of the construction of confidence. Here we report a high-density EEG experiment in which we infer elements of the EEG response which are indicative of subjective confidence. We find that an early response during encoding partially correlates with perceived confidence.

However, the bulk of the weight of subjective confidence is determined during a late, Nlike waveform, during the retrieval stage. This shows that we can find markers of access to internal, subjective states, that are uncoupled from objective response and stimulus properties of the task, and we propose that this can be used with decoding methods of EEG to infer subjective mental states.

Macro- level vulnerable road users crash analysis: A Bayesian joint modeling approach of frequency and proportion. This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level.

In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users' crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers.

To accommodate for the potentially different impact of exogenous factors we convert the non-motorist crash counts as the product of total crash counts and proportion of non-motorist crashes and formulate a joint model of the negative binomial NB model and the logit model to deal with the two parts, respectively.

Meanwhile, the traditional NB model is also estimated and compared with the joint model. The result indicates that the joint model provides better data fit and can identify more significant variables. Subsequently, a novel joint screening method is suggested based on the proposed model to identify hot zones for non-motorist crashes. The hot zones of non-motorist crashes are identified and divided into three types: hot zones with more dangerous driving environment only, hot zones with more hazardous walking and cycling conditions only, and hot zones with both.

It is expected that the joint model and screening method can help decision makers, transportation officials, and community planners to make more efficient treatments to proactively improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Methodology for building confidence measures. This paper presents a generalized methodology for propagating known or estimated levels of individual source document truth reliability to determine the confidence level of a combined output.

Initial document certainty levels are augmented by i combining the reliability measures of multiply sources, ii incorporating the truth reinforcement of related elements, and iii incorporating the importance of the individual elements for determining the probability of truth for the whole. The result is a measure of confidence in system output based on the establishing of links among the truth values of inputs.

This methodology was developed for application to a multi-component situation awareness tool under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Rome, New York. Determining how improvements in data quality and the variety of documents collected affect the probability of a correct situational detection helps optimize the performance of the tool overall. Adding Confidence to Knowledge.

A "knowledge survey" and a formative evaluation process led to major changes in an instructor's course and teaching methods over a 5-year period. Design of the survey incorporated several innovations, including: a using " confidence survey" rather than "knowledge survey" as the title; b completing an instructional…. Cortical neuroprostheses for movement restoration require developing models for relating neural activity to desired movement.

Previous studies have focused on correlating single-unit activities SUA in primary motor cortex to volitional arm movements in able-bodied primates. The extent of the cortical information relevant to arm movements remaining in severely paralyzed individuals is largely unknown. We record intracortical signals using a microelectrode array chronically implanted in the precentral gyrus of a person with tetraplegia, and estimate positions of imagined single- joint arm movements.

Including multiple signal types in a decoder increased prediction accuracy in all cases. We conclude that signals recorded from a single restricted region of the precentral gyrus in this person with tetraplegia contained useful information regarding the intended movements of upper extremity joints. Deconstructing the power resistance relationship for squats: A joint-level analysis. Generating high leg power outputs is important for executing rapid movements.

Squats are commonly used to increase leg strength and power. Therefore, it is useful to understand factors affecting power output in squatting. We aimed to deconstruct the mechanisms behind why power is maximized at certain resistances in squatting. Three-dimensional kinematics was combined with ground reaction force GRF data in an inverse dynamics analysis to calculate leg joint moments and powers. These reductions were due to constraints on the control of the movement.

The mechanics and energetics of human walking and running: a joint level perspective. Humans walk and run at a range of speeds. While steady locomotion at a given speed requires no net mechanical work, moving faster does demand both more positive and negative mechanical work per stride. Is this increased demand met by increasing power output at all lower limb joints or just some of them? Does running rely on different joints for power output than walking?

How does this contribute to the metabolic cost of locomotion? This study examined the effects of walking and running speed on lower limb joint mechanics and metabolic cost of transport in humans. Kinematic and kinetic data for 10 participants were collected for a range of walking 0. Net metabolic power was measured by indirect calorimetry. Within each gait, there was no difference in the proportion of power contributed by each joint hip, knee, ankle to total power across speeds.

Critical bending moment of implant-abutment screw joint interfaces: effect of torque levels and implant diameter. Critical bending moment CBM , the moment at which the external nonaxial load applied overcomes screw joint preload and causes loss of contact between the mating surfaces of the implant screw joint components, was measured with 2 types of implants and 2 types of abutments. Microstrain was measured as loads were applied to the abutment at various distances from the implant-abutment interface.

Strain instrumentation logged the strain data dynamically to determine the point of gap opening. All torque applications and strain measurements were repeated 5 times. Bitcoin Casino betting sport Bitcoin Casino betting sport. Forex news -forex broker review Forex news -forex broker review.

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